ARTOR (Autonomous Rough Terrain Outdoor Robot) is a robotic vehicle capable of driving in rough terrain and at relatively high speed. It is based on a LandShark from Black-I Robotics, a 6-wheeled, skid-steered electric vehicle. The LandShark's front axle is raised by a few centimeters compared to the middle and rear axes, which reduces friction forces in tight turns and enhances the robot's obstacle climbing capabilities. While offering a reasonable amount of space for additional payload (such as sensors), the LandShark is still small enough to fit through standard doors.

The basic platform has been modified by RUAG Land Systems (Thun, Switzerland) to be suitable for autonomous navigation. In particular, the vehicle has been equipped with a series of sensors in order to gather information about the environment and the robot's state. On top, a 3D laser scanner is mounted for accurate perception of obstacles and the terrain shape. Two 2D laser scanners - one at the front, one at the back - can be used for navigation in flat environments and for obstacle avoidance. Furthermore, a stereo camera at the front and a monocular camera at the back provide valuable information for localization and mapping. The vehicle is equipped with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and, last but not least, with a GPS receiver for global localization or ground truth collection.

Specifications (complete vehicle)

  • drive-train:
    • 6 wheels (15 inch)
    • skid-steered
    • raised front axle
  • weight: 350 kg
  • dimensions (length x width x height): 1320 x 710 x 1220 mm
  • 2 electric motors, 3 lead-acid batteries
  • maximum speed approx. 3.5 m/s


3D laser scanner: Velodyne HDL-32E

  • 32 laser/detector pairs
  • field of view: +10° to -30° vertical, 360° horizontal
  • frame rate 5-20 Hz
  • range: 5 cm to 100 m
  • output: up to 800'000 points/s

2D laser scanner: Sick LMS151

  • field of view: 270°
  • scanning frequency: 50 Hz
  • range: 0.5 m to 50 m

Stereo camera: Point Grey Bumblebee2

  • 2 color CCD sensors
  • resolution: 1024 x 768 pixels
  • baseline: 120 mm
  • frame rate: 20 fps
  • field of view: 97°

Monocular camera: AVT Stingray F-046C

  • color CCD sensor
  • resolution: 780 x 580 pixels
  • frame rate: 61 fps

Inertial Measurement Unit: Xsens MTi

  • output:
    • 3D linear acceleration
    • 3D angular velocity
    • 3D magnetic field measurement
    • 3D orientation
  • max. update rate: 512 Hz

GPS receiver: Trimble Pathfinder ProXT

  • update rate: 1 Hz
  • additional external antenna
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